Government intervention, academic participation, service providers, and the start-up community have all contributed to the rapid growth of the quantum technology ecosystem. Indian businesses turned to quantum technology as technology matured over time. As a result, in 2019, India's government proclaimed quantum technology to be a "mission of national importance." Since then, the government and the military have invested heavily in basic and applied research.

As a result, Indian tech businesses have highlighted quantum as a crucial opportunity to supply global and Indian clientele, and proofs of concept have been built (POC). To stay up with industrial demand and problems, there must be constant growth of the local workforce (quantum). By 2026–2027, quantum technology will be ready to build fault-tolerant quantum goods that may be employed with high technology, resulting in higher acceptance by Indian businesses.

Manufacturing, banking, and defence will be among the first to use quantum technology on a large basis. India has the potential to become a major market for quantum R&D, software development, and equipment manufacture as part of its overall expansion. By 2030, quantum technology will add $310 billion to India's economy.

How can businesses use quantum technology?

Quantum technology is a new branch of physics and engineering that makes advantage of quantum mechanical phenomena such as quantum superposition, quantum interference, and quantum entanglement. Quantum computing, in contrast to classical computing, describes light and matter at the atomic and subatomic scales. As a result, it is critical in the solution of the most difficult scientific and engineering problems in factoring, optimization, materials, and chemistry.

Although quantum computing is seen as the holy grail by businesses, it does not imply that traditional machines will be phased out. However, businesses will employ a hybrid cloud architecture to mobilise bits (classical), qubits (quantum), and neurons (AI-assisted programming). Today, Indian firms can focus on developing a fault-tolerant, large-scale quantum computer that protects qubits from heat, vibration, and stray atoms.

The number of quantum bits was too small (50-100 qubits) and lacked the error correction required to execute complicated computations during the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) period. Recent breakthroughs, on the other hand, indicate that quantum technologies will become a reality, even if the timescale for scientific growth is impossible to predict. Quantum could be employed in circuits integrated into devices in the future to combat security risks. Quantum annealers and simulators, which are more inexpensive and practical, will also be in demand.

The quantum industry's technicalities

To keep the industry under check, the Indian government has tried to establish organisations and initiatives for quantum technology. Approximately 100 government-funded quantum and related technology projects have progressed to various levels. In the next five years, companies and the government have set a unified objective of commercialising quantum solutions that are high-tech ready. With the support of infrastructure and human resources, the Department of Science and Technology (DST) has pioneered the Quantum Information Science and Technology (QuST) programme to create the basis.

The government's major efforts

Many important quantum technology efforts were launched in India last year. Let's take a look at the government's most significant actions.

The Indian Army established a quantum computing facility and an AI centre at a military engineering institute in Mhow, Madhya Pradesh, in December 2021. The National Security Council Secretariat also supports it (NSCS). In addition, after unveiling a QKD solution in October 2021, the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) opened a quantum communication lab. On ordinary optical fibre, it can support a distance of more than 100 kilometres.